Bioethics, Biopsychology, Medical Anthropology and Political Philosophy in Hippocrates and John Chrysostomus4 January 2021
The bioethic work of medical philosopher Hippocrates as the father of medical science and health sciences in Ancient Greece during the 5th century BC is considered very important and topical in today’s reality. In the capital of the Greek island of Kos, which according to the historian Strabo was considered one of the most beautiful cities of the ancient world, there were Agora, Prytaneion, theatre, temples and altars, with statues of local heroes. In this distant but like fairy-tale environment and under the shadow of the historic plane tree, the medical philosopher spent the summer hours writing his books and teaching his disciples. This man of wisdom was destined to become the pride of the island, and afterwards of the whole of Greece and later on of the whole world of philosophy and medical science. It is argued that “life is short, art is long, the living life is short, the art is long, the chance is instant, experimentation is shaky, diagnosis is difficult”. He taught that “it is not just the practitioner who fulfills his duty, but also the sick, the assistants, the external conditions”. This is the first and the most important scientific definition or aphorism of Hippocrates, the Father of Greek and international medical science.
Visitors to the historic island of Kos even today when they walk around the same historic tree which they call «the plane tree of Hippocrates», feel that mentally they hear the voice of the enlightened master with mental words and spiritual sounds of the lost in the centuries and history harsh Doric language. Fortunately, today four biographies have been rescued for this wise Grand Master. They are as follows: one is by Soranos from Ephesus that dates back to the 1st century AD, the second one by the Byzantine Suida procedes from the 10th century C.E, the famous “Lexicon” of Souda, is the third one by Tzetzis backdates from the 12th century AD and the fourth one subsequently is by an anonymous author that was found in a Latin manuscript in the Royal Library of Brussels.
In accordance with the above biographies Hippocrates was born in the Greek island of Kos on the 27th of the month of Agrianou, which corresponds to the modern month of January or maybe April, around the year 460 BC. He was the son of physician Heracleides and Fainaretis. In fact, he was the 17th grandson of Asclepius. He studied under the private guidance of his father, also a physician and philosopher of the age named Irodikos, possibly also under the guidance of the sophist Gorgias known for his masterful rhetoric. Then he also attended the medical schools of Knidos and Kos. After the death of his parents, Hippocrates decided and made large and long trips for his time. He visited the island of Thassos, Macedonia, Thrace, Scythia, possibly Egypt and Athens and Larissa. He traveled like a physician, philosopher and “periodeftis”. These great trips for his time can be considered equivalent to medical missions, according to the criterion of contemporary organized or private scientific medical missions. Along with him were also some of his students with the purpose of observation, study and research. As for the private life of Hippocrates, very little is known about it. Nevertheless, we know that he had two sons, Thessalos and the Draco, and also a daughter by the name of Fenareti, whose husband was Asklipiadis Polyvos. This is all for the personalities who lived in the 5th century BC. As we know from that period, the attention of then people was mainly focused on public affairs and on public life, that is why there is very few information referred to the privacy of those persons. Therefore, the narratives around Hippocrates that took its final shape during the Hellenistic period and were handed on to the future generations of biographers are enough. In conclusion of the above statements we will quote the views of two major researchers about the project: “Peri aeron, idaton, topon” (On winds, waters, places). One of whom is the rationalist of the Western Europe Korais who as a physician and philologist and member of the Academy of Sciences of Montpellier, he was known as “Master of the nation” who argued concerning Hippocrates that: “This project is a real legacy for students of Medicine of all time”. Here though it would be wrong not to mention the unselfish and altruistic medical philosopher Come Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias the truly selfless medical philosopher and unjustly murder victim first Governor of Greece Also Littre, remained until today great translator for the West of the works by Hippocrates, who after painstaking work resulted in joining Medical Academy of Paris in the year 1858 and later to the French Academy of Sciences in the year 1873, and said that: “the originality of the topic, the depth of the concepts, transparency and eloquence, make this project really perfect.”
John Chrysostom is ethics philosophic master but also an authentic interpreter of the Bible. He is a perfect expression of the foundation of genuine Christian moral life, which leads to the eschatological destination. Ethics and bioethics has direct consequences in theology, in cosmology, in economy, in medical and pedagogical Anthropology and even political philosophy. The Holy Father became prophet of love and teacher of the free will of man. The doctor and educator God created man selflessly as King of his creation and was created “in the image and likeness of God”. He was created as a mortal who is driven ethical, pedagogical, and anthropological in perfection. The evil is not eternal, but it is as a parasite. The fall of man was from the misuse of his freedom. God is a medical doctor and an educator. Chrysostom stresses the therapeutic good education and good options. The proper medical pharmaceutical education is the one that gives to man the possibility of distinguishing between good and evil. The consciousness of man teaches him the first evidence of good, ethics and bioethics, then the law of the Bible the rest. In addition, the Gospel of Christ reveals the whole truth. Man, now is called not to apply the law, but to imitate the therapist God-man Christ. The ultimate evil is removed. Death is nothing but the beginning of the end times. With the Baptism and Holy Communion, man becomes spiritually accomplished, not afraid of punishment, but has spiritual hope. This life is a test phase for eternity. That is why man should obey the moral commandments of Doctor God of love. The hardships in life are many, but the spiritual pleasure is immense. God’s grace overshadows and protects the fighter Christian.
Humility is the most valuable virtue of man. Monasticism is a large school, while marriage is a method of healing and rescue. The proper upbringing of children must also mould “Philosophers” citizens of heaven. Social structures should lead us to our moral and eschatological destination. Secular knowledge and power will not have to fight the Church, because the Lords should be good doctors and ethical educators. In the event of appearance of anti-educational, false doctors and antichrist standards, the institutions should not be blamed, but the people.
The personality of Chrysostom appears in a critical period of Christianity, which he marks in a bioethical way. His struggle is characterized, as transport from the place of the doctrine, in the area of ethics, bioethics and moral education, in the field of ecclesiastical life and expression. Facing the danger of secularization of Christianity, he assumes the moral combat against friendship of this world, and that is why he is forced to use anthropological caustic language encouraging and mindfulness, to return at the good and kindness. He fights everything secular, even the secular “Exothen” (External) education, stating its inferiority in relation to ethical and bioethical life conduct, on the basis of the Evangelical salvaging orders of doctor and therapist Christ and his Apostles. His erudition and rich knowledge of ancient Greek philosophy, along with his hagiographic and Patristic capacity for nomination of higher meanings towards the end times, establishes him even more. Chrysostom does not treat the world as an evil, neither as the only region of “Is” and the man, but as the site of preparation for the completion and the retribution against the ultimate judgment day.
Man and the whole world are the creation of the good God, who follows a historic route, which is monitored and directed by the physician and creator. Man moves in complete freedom and use of free will, in order to be left to his sanction and free agency the proportional claiming of fair gain. If God did not want to take into consideration human will he could impose from the beginning a subordinate authority and partial bliss. However, because evil entered in humans with the disobedience of Adam, in their quest to become “Isotheoi” (equal to God), as the culmination of their arrogance and infidelity to the therapist, physician, Creator, the Savior and Messiah himself should come, as the physician of souls and bodies in order to elevate the fallen man. This advent of Christ had been predicted by the prophets of the Bible, as the first and humble advent of doctor healer God-man Christ. While, according to the Prophet Daniel as he interprets, the climax of this immorality, arrogance, refusal at the person of Jesus Christ, the erudition and rich knowledge of Ancient Greek philosophy, along with hagiographic and Patristic of capacity in high-vis the end and meanings of the finish, backs up even more. Chrysostom does not treat the world as an evil eye, neither as the only region of “Is” and the man, but as the site preparation for the completion and the retribution against the ultimate judgment day.
The man and the whole world is a creation of the good God, who follows a historic route, which monitors and directs the physician and author. The man moves in complete freedom and use of free will, in order to allow the adoption and free choice and in the analogue claiming fair gain. If God does not want to take into consideration human choice could impose from the beginning a subordinate authority and partial bliss. However, because the evil entered in humans with the disobedience of Adam, in their quest to become “Isotheoi” (equal to God), as the culmination of their arrogance and infidelity to the therapist, physician, Creator, the Savior and Messiah himself should come, as the physician of souls and bodies in order to elevate the fallen man. This advent this Christ had been predicted by the prophets of the Bible, as the first and humble advent of doctor healer God-man Christ. While, according to the Prophet Daniel as he interprets, the climax of this immorality, arrogance, refusal at the person of the healer Jesus Christ, will be met at the person of the end times at the face of false doctor Antichrist.
Chrysostom right from the beginning states that the abominable face of lawlessness, which is prophesized that will appear shortly before the second coming of Christ the Healer, is not other than the man who will have accepted inside him all the action of the Luciferian devil. It will be the perfect moral, bioethical anti-educational standard of all ages. His movements and acts will have a unique purpose, his tyrannical suzerainty in the disrespectful world and its fraudulent oppression, believing that he will stay eternally as the sole world ruler and King on Earth, as the bad model of Lord false doctor.
The Bible already from the time of the Prophet Daniel informs us on the false doctors and the precursor antichristicism. However, the reporting is done indirectly and not directly, because they are simply outlined the main features of the personality of the abominable person as false doctor antichrist. In an era of ethical religious apostasy, the false doctor and false magician will emerge as a great political ruler, who will want to gather at his face the two powers: political and religious, as God on Earth and as false therapist of the world, after more than five thousand years after the fall of Adam, and by the end of the seventh millenia, i.e. marching towards the eighth millennia will open up the books of the righteous and the unrighteous. Chrysostom becomes more up-to-date with his opinion for the contemporary society development and bliss that is far away of bioethics and Doctor God, which led to the misuse of the term: a good housekeeper, by self-destructing the living environment, as precursor point to the end times of human life. The appearance of false doctor will bring out the political division and anarchy of humanity, but also the chaotic ethics, bioethics and socio-religious perception of people. That is why the Messiah will easily appear as false doctor who will lead humanity, supposedly in bliss, morality and the euphoria. The ethical disrespectful that will follow him will be without excuse. On the other hand, the righteous should endurance patience, for the brief glorious advent of doctor and Bridegroom who will justify them permanently.
The terrible signs of the upcoming catalysis of godless physician Antichrist, from the almighty word of healer Christ will be the darkening of the Sun and the stars. The great luminers who were created by the therapist physician Creator God himself will shake and will be destroyed in the appearance of the Almighty Creator, who is praised by the universes and who will come to launch ‘new heavens’ spiritual, yielding the justice for centuries with the resurrection of all the righteous and the unrighteous, for the first to eternal life, for the second to eternal hell.
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